2.3 Food Choices and Health: Choosing Foods, Understanding Nutrients

2.3 Food Choices and Health: Choosing Foods, Understanding Nutrients


– WELCOME TO THE THIRD PART
ON THIS WEEK’S SERIES, “FOOD CHOICES AND HUMAN HEALTH”. THIS SECTION IS GOING
TO COVER WHAT WE CAN DO ABOUT DEVELOPING
CHRONIC DISEASE, WHAT TYPE OF INFLUENCE
WE HAVE ON OUR RISK FOR DEVELOPING THESE DISEASES
AND DEFINING NUTRIENTS. I’D LIKE TO START
WITH SOME BASIC FOOD RULES. THESE ARE MODIFIED
FROM MICHAEL POLLAN. AND I’LL START WITH THE
FIRST ONE, WHICH IS, DON’T EAT ANYTHING YOUR
GRANDMOTHER WOULDN’T RECOGNIZE. NOW FOR SOME OF YOU,
THIS IS YOUR GREAT GRANDMOTHER BECAUSE YOU
ARE STILL IN YOUR 20S. AND DON’T EAT ANYTHING WITH
MORE THAN FIVE INGREDIENTS. NOW IT’D BE WONDERFUL IF WE
COULD EAT ALL WHOLE FOODS, AVOID ALL PACKAGED FOODS, BUT WE DO LIVE IN THE MODERN
WORLD AND WE ARE SUBJECT TO A LIFE THAT IS RUSHED AND
SOMETIMES FURIOUS AT TIMES. THIS MEANS THAT WE
DO HAVE TO GRAB FOR SOME PACKAGED AND
PROCESSED FOODS. WE WANT TO MINIMIZE THIS. BUT WHEN YOU DO
CHOOSE SOMETHING, CHOOSE SOMETHING THAT HAS FEWER
THAN FIVE INGREDIENTS AND DON’T EAT ANYTHING WITH INGREDIENTS
YOU WOULDN’T RECOGNIZE. IF YOU LOOK ON A
LABEL AND YOU HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THAT INGREDIENT IS, THEN JUST PUT IT
BACK ON THE SHELF. DON’T EAT ANYTHING THAT
WON’T EVENTUALLY ROT, REAL FOOD WILL ROT. SOME FOODS, SUCH AS GRAINS
AND LEGUMES, BEANS, THEY ARE ALL GOING TO
HAVE A LONGER SHELF LIFE, BUT WILL EVENTUALLY ROT. KEEP THAT IN MIND. AND LASTLY, IF A PRODUCT
HAS TO TELL YOU IT’S HEALTHY, IT PROBABLY ISN’T HEALTHY. I’D LIKE TO TALK A LITTLE
BIT ABOUT THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE OUR FOOD CHOICES,
AND THERE ARE A NUMBER OF THEM. AND WE’LL START
WITH AVAILABILITY. RIGHT NOW WE HAVE AN
ABUNDANCE OF FOOD. 100 YEARS AGO, FOOD
WAS NOT SO ABUNDANT, PARTICULARLY 200 YEARS AGO. AND THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO, WE ACTUALLY HAD PERIODS
OF FOOD SCARCITY. SO NOW WE HAVE FOOD ABUNDANCE
AND ALMOST TOO MANY CHOICES.   COST IS GOING TO
INFLUENCE YOUR CHOICE. IF YOU’RE ON A BUDGET, IT’S GOING TO INFLUENCE HOW
MUCH YOU’RE GOING TO SPEND. THE ENVIRONMENT. AND WHAT I MEAN
BY ENVIRONMENT IS, YOU KNOW, WHO’S AROUND YOU? MANY TIMES PEOPLE
WILL EAT MORE WHEN THEY’RE SURROUNDED BY FRIENDS. BUT IF YOU HAVE FRIENDS WHO
HAVE HEALTHY EATING HABITS, YOU’RE MORE LIKELY
TO EAT LIKE THEM. IF THEY HAVE, YOU KNOW, A TASTE FOR FRENCH
FRIES AND HAMBURGERS, YOU’RE MORE LIKELY TO EAT THAT. THE TYPE OF MUSIC THAT’S PLAYING
CAN INFLUENCE HOW YOU EAT, AND EVEN THE TYPE OF LIGHTING. CONVENIENCE. AGAIN, WE ALL LEAD
REALLY BUSY LIVES. IF THE FOOD IS CONVENIENT,
YOU MIGHT GRAB IT. IT COULD BE AN APPLE,
WHICH WOULD BE A GOOD CHOICE, OR IT MIGHT BE A SNICKERS BAR. EITHER WAY, CONVENIENCE
IS GOING TO IMPACT YOU. THE SIZE OF YOUR PLATES,
YOUR SPOONS, YOUR FORKS, YOUR CUPS,
YOUR GLASSES, ALL IMPACT FOOD CHOICES, HOW MUCH WE EAT AND HOW
MUCH WE PUT ON OUR PLATE. AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT
THIS MORE NEXT WEEK. THERE ARE CULTURAL INFLUENCES. SOME OF THESE
MIGHT BE RELIGIOUS, SOME OF THIS MAYBE NOT. IT MIGHT JUST BE YOUR TRADITION
AND YOU MIGHT HAVE FAMILIES THAT COOK TRADITIONAL MEALS OR
TRADITIONAL CULTURAL MEALS AND THAT’S GOING TO AFFECT WHAT
YOU PUT INTO YOUR BODY. HUNGER IS CERTAINLY AN IMPACT. IF YOU ARE HUNGRY–
HAVE YOU EVER GONE TO THE GROCERY STORE AND
YOU ARE STARVING? [ LAUGHS ]
– YOU JUST WANT TO THROW EVERYTHING INTO THE
CART BECAUSE YOU’RE SO HUNGRY OR YOU
MIGHT JUST RUN IN, GRAB THE FIRST THING YOU CAN,
GO TO THE REGISTER AND GO OUT. SO IT’S GOING TO IMPACT
THE FOODS THAT YOU SELECT. WHEN YOU’RE FULL
YOU ARE PROBABLY GOING TO SELECT
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOODS. SOCIAL VALUES.
YOU– SOME INDIVIDUALS ARE GOING TO
FOCUS ON ANIMAL RIGHTS. I MEAN THEY’RE NOT GOING TO
CHOOSE TO EAT MEAT. SOME ARE GOING TO FOCUS ON
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLU-IMPACT, MEANING THAT THEY
MAY NOT CHOOSE A– AN AVOCADO THAT CAME FROM CHILE, THAT THEY WOULD RATHER
EAT IN SEASON AND LOCALLY OR THERE MIGHT BE A
NUMBER OF OTHER CHOICES, WHETHER IT’S CHOOSING GRASS
FED MEAT OVER CONVENTIONAL. SO THESE ALL IMPACT THE TYPE
OF FOOD CHOICES WE MAKE. ADVERTISING. YOU MAY NOT THINK
YOU’RE INFLUENCED BY ADVERTISING AND YOU
MAY NOT EVEN HAVE A TV, BUT NOW WE HAVE ADS
ON OUR COMPUTERS, YOU HAVE THEM ON FACEBOOK. ALMOST EVERY WEBSITE
YOU GO TO IS GOING TO HAVE AN AD JUST BECAUSE
IT’S AN EASY WAY TO BRING REVENUE AND
SUPPORT A WEBSITE. I KNOW THAT MY HUSBAND, EVERY TIME HE SEES
THE CARL’S JR. WESTERN BACON CHEESEBURGER
ADVERTISEMENT, HE LITERALLY STARTS
SALIVATING AND STARTS DREAMING
ABOUT HAMBURGERS. SO YOU MAY NOT ALWAYS THINK
THAT YOU’RE INFLUENCED, BUT MOST PEOPLE ARE
INFLUENCED ON SOME LEVEL BY ADVERTISING AND THAT
CAN IMPACT YOUR CHOICES. AND OF COURSE, TASTE. THERE ARE PEOPLE
CALLED SUPER TASTERS. THEY HAVE A REALLY HARD
TIME WITH VERY BITTER FOODS, MEANING THAT THEY’RE PROBABLY
NOT GOING TO CHOOSE TO EAT CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES,
THINGS LIKE BROCCOLI AND BOK CHOY BECAUSE THEY’RE
EXTRA BITTER TO THEM. WE ALL HAVE CERTAIN
TASTE AND PREFERENCES, WHICH IS GOING TO
IMPACT OUR FOOD CHOICES. THIS IS JUST A SHORT TOUR
IN THE GROCERY STORE, SPECIFICALLY DOWN THE
BREAKFAST BAR AND CEREAL AISLE. AND I’M JUST SHOWING YOU THIS
TO EMPHASIZE THE POINT ON HOW MANY FOOD CHOICES WE HAVE,
THE AVAILABILITY OF FOOD. AND LOOK AT THE CEREAL AISLE. THERE IS AN ENTIRE AISLE
DEDICATED TO CEREAL, AND SOME OF THEM NOT
BEING THE BEST CHOICES. LOOK HERE, WE HAVE SPECIAL
K CHOCOLATE DELIGHT. AGAIN, WE HAVE MORE CHOICES
FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, WHICH IS ALSO BENEFICIAL. THIS IS DR. BRIAN WANSINK
AND HE’S DONE HUNDREDS OF STUDIES ON THE FACTORS THAT
INFLUENCE OUR FOOD CHOICES. HE’S THE DIRECTOR
OF THE FOOD AND BRAND LAB AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ALSO THE AUTHOR OF
“MINDLESS EATING”. WHAT I’M GOING TO DO IS
GO THROUGH JUST A FEW OF HIS STUDIES JUST
TO SHOW YOU SOME OF THE INFLUENCES WE HAVE
OVER OUR FOOD CHOICES, HOW MUCH WE ENJOY THAT FOOD,
HOW IT IMPACTS OUR SATIETY, THAT’S THE FEELING OF FULLNESS,
AND HOW MUCH WE EAT. WE’LL START WITH THIS CARTOON. NOW LOOK AT THE
GENTLEMAN ON THE LEFT. “THIS TASTES GREAT BUT BOY,
AM I FULL”. HE’S EATING BELGIAN BLACK
FOREST DOUBLE CHOCOLATE CAKE. AND THIS GENTLEMAN OVER HERE,” MINE WAS JUST OKAY,
AND I’M STILL HUNGRY”. HE’S EATING JUST CHOCOLATE CAKE. NOW WE HAVE THE WAITER HERE
WHO IS THE ONE DOING THE STUDY. THIS IS ONE OF THE STUDIES. AND HE SAYS, “IF
ONLY THEY KNEW THEY WERE EATING THE
EXACT SAME CAKE”. WELL, THIS IS ONE OF
THE STUDIES THAT DR. WANSINK AND
HIS COLLEAGUES DID. HE GAVE THE EXACT SAME PIECE OF
CAKE TO TWO GROUPS OF PEOPLE. THE ONLY DIFFERENCE WAS, WAS THE LABEL, A FANCY NAME WITH A FANCY DESCRIPTION, MEANT THAT PEOPLE ENJOYED THE
CAKE MORE AND FELT FULLER. SIMPLE, BASIC NAME
MEANT THAT PEOPLE ENJOYED THE CAKE
LESS AND ATE LESS. AND HERE’S ANOTHER STUDY, THE SAME IDEA AND THIS IS
ON THE BOTTOMLESS BOWLS: VISUAL CUES BIAS SOUP INTAKE. AND YOU CAN SEE HERE THE CARTOON
HAS THE INVESTIGATOR ASKING, “WHEN WILL YOU BE FULL”? AND THE CONSUMER,
“WELL, WHEN I REACHED THE BOTTOM”,
MEANING WHEN I FINISH. NOW THIS JUST ANY– THIS ISN’T ACTUALLY HOW
THEY DID THE EXPERIMENT, BUT WHAT THEY DID IS THEY HAD
TWO GROUPS OF PEOPLE COME IN, ONE GROUP HAD A BOTTOMLESS BOWL,
MEANING THAT IT CONTINUED TO REFILL FROM GRAVITY AND
THE BOWL NEVER EMPTIED. SO THEY CAN EAT AND EAT AND
EAT AND THE BOWL NEVER EMPTIED. ANOTHER GROUP COULD
FEED THEMSELVES AS MUCH SOUP AS THEY WANTED, BUT THEY ACTUALLY HAD TO GET UP
AND SPOON MORE INTO THEIR BOWL. SO THEY HAD THE OPTION OF
EATING THE SAME AMOUNT, BUT THOSE WITH BOTTOMLESS
BOWLS ENDED UP EATING DRAMATICALLY MORE THAN
THOSE WHO HAD TO REFILL IT THEMSELVES AND SAYING
THAT THEY WERE LESS FULL. THEY WERE LESS SATISFIED
THAN THE INDIVIDUALS WHO ATE LESS AND
ACTUALLY FELT FULLER. SO AGAIN, WHAT YOU THINK
YOU’RE EATING HAS– [ COUGHS ]
– EXCUSE ME, WHAT YOU THINK YOU’RE
EATING HAS AN IMPACT. IF THE CANDY DISH
IS SIX FEET AWAY, YOU EAT HALF AS MUCH. SO WE START WITH
A RECEPTIONIST, ONE, WHO HAS CANDY ON HER DESK. SHE SAYS, “I DON’T
KNOW HOW TO RESIST HOW YOU CAN RESIST
THESE CHOCOLATES”. RECEPTIONIST NUMBER TWO, “THEY’RE SIX FEET BETWEEN
ME AND TEMPTATION”. SO HERE’S THE STUDY. THEY ACTUALLY USED THREE,
THREE DIFFERENT METHODS. ONE WAS THE CANDY BOWL
IS ON THE DESK AND THEY MEASURED HOW MUCH CANDY IS
EATEN THROUGHOUT THE DAY. NUMBER TWO,
THE CANDY IS ON A SHELF, IT’S SIX FEET AWAY AND THEY MEASURED HOW MUCH
CANDY IS EATEN. THERE’S ACTUALLY A THIRD
ONE THAT’S NOT SHOWN HERE, THE CANDY IS IN A CABINET SO
YOU KNOW THAT THE CANDY’S THERE, BUT YOU CAN’T SEE IT. SO YOU ALREADY KNOW THE
ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION, WHO EATS THE MOST? WELL, WHEN IT’S RIGHT IN FRONT
OF YOU, YOU EAT THE MOST. WHEN IT’S SIX FEET AWAY,
YOU EAT HALF AS MUCH, AND WHEN IT’S BEHIND THE
CLOSET, YOU EAT– DON’T EAT MUCH AT ALL BECAUSE
OUT OF SIGHT, OUT OF MIND. NOW WE’RE GOING TO
TALK MORE ABOUT DR. WANSINK’S
EXPERIMENTS NEXT WEEK. NOW, OF COURSE, YOU NOTICED
THAT ONE OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD CHOICES
I LEFT OUT IS NUTRITION. AND THAT’S, OF COURSE, WHAT WE’RE GOING TO BE SPENDING
THE MOST TIME ON THIS SEMESTER. BUT SOME PEOPLE ACTUALLY
DO CHOOSE FOODS THAT THEY– THAT ARE HEALTHY OR THAT THEY
THINK ARE HEALTHY OR A GOOD, WILL HELP THEM ACQUIRE
MORE NUTRIENTS. SO WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS? WHAT ARE OUR
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS? WELL, LET’S START WITH THE
DEFINITION OF THE CENTRAL. ESSENTIAL MEANS THAT THESE ARE
NUTRIENTS NEEDED BY THE BODY, SOMETHING THAT IS
NECESSARY FOR THE BODY. AND THIS IS USUALLY FOR
OUR GENERAL HEALTH OR EVEN FOR SURVIVAL,
SO THIS IS WHAT IS ESSENTIAL. SO IT CANNOT BE MADE
BY THE BODY OR CANNOT BE MADE IN SUFFICIENT
AMOUNTS BY THE BODY, SO THIS IS ESSENTIAL,
SOMETHING THAT IS ESSENTIAL TO THE BODY FOR
HEALTH AND OR SURVIVAL. AND ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS,
MEANING THESE ARE THE NUTRIENTS THAT EITHER CANNOT
BE MADE BY THE BODY OR MAYBE THEY JUST CAN’T BE MADE
IN SUFFICIENT AMOUNT, SO WE NEED TO GET
THEM FROM THE DIET, THAT’S ESSENTIAL,
SO OR FOOD, THEY NEED TO BE OBTAINED
FROM FOOD IN OUR DIET. CARBOHYDRATES, FAT,
PROTEIN, VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND THE MOST
IMPORTANT NUTRIENT, WATER. THESE ARE OUR SIX
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS. THE MACRONUTRIENTS ARE THE BIG NUTRIENTS AND THESE
ARE GOING TO BE, CARBOHYDRATES, FAT,
AND PROTEIN. MICRONUTRIENTS ARE
THE SMALLER NUTRIENTS. IT DOESN’T MEAN
THEY’RE LESS IMPORTANT, BUT THESE ARE
VITAMINS AND MINERALS. NOW YOU NOTICED I
LEFT OUT WATER HERE, OTHERWISE WE HAD OUR SIX ESSEN– FIVE OF THE SIX
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS, WATER BEING THE MOST
IMPORTANT NUTRIENT, BUT IS IN A SEPARATE CATEGORY, IT’S NOT A MACRONUTRIENT
NOR A MICRONUTRIENTS. SO WITH MACRONUTRIENTS, CARBOHYDRATES DIVIDE INTO
STORAGE, SUGAR AND FIBER. AND WE’LL BE GOING INTO THIS
IN PLENTY OF DETAIL LATER. FAT, WE HAVE MONOUNSATURATED
FATS, POLYUNSATURATED FATS.   AND WITHIN THAT FAT
CATEGORY BEFORE I MOVE ON, I JUST WANT TO MENTION THAT
THESE ARE OUR FATTY ACIDS. THE ENTIRE CATEGORY OF LIPIDS, WHICH DOES INCLUDE CHOLESTEROL
AND SOME PHOSPHOLIPIDS, THEY’RE ACTUALLY NOT FATS. AND AGAIN, WE ARE GOING TO SPEND
AN ENTIRE WEEK ON THIS TOPIC, AN ENTIRE CHAPTER. AND THEN OUR MACRONUTRIENTS
ALSO INCLUDE PROTEIN, SO OUR MICRONUTRIENTS,
VITAMINS AND MINERALS. AND, OF COURSE, THE MOST
IMPORTANT NUTRIENT IS WATER. SO WHICH OF THESE
NUTRIENTS GIVE US ENERGY? CARBOHYDRATES, FAT AND PROTEINS,
OUR MACRONUTRIENTS, ARE THE ONES THAT
WE GET ENERGY FROM. WE CONSUME THE FOOD AND WE
OBTAIN ENERGY FROM THEM. CARBOHYDRATES HAVE FOUR
CALORIES PER GRAIN. THAT MEANS THERE ARE FOUR, WHEN YOU HIT A CARBOHYDRATE
YOU’LL BE ABLE TO GET FOUR CALORIES OF ENERGY PER GRAM OF
CARBOHYDRATE THAT YOU CONSUME. FAT HAS NINE CALORIES PER GRAM, SO YOU’LL GET NINE
CALORIES OF ENERGY FOR EVERY GRAM OF FAT THAT
YOU EAT, PROTEIN, FOUR CALORIES PER GRAM. SO WHEN WE’RE
TALKING ABOUT CALORIES, WHY DON’T WE DEFINE
WHAT IS A CALORIE. THINK ABOUT THAT, CAN YOU
DEFINE WHAT A CALORIE IS? WELL, CALORIE IS A
UNIT OF FOOD ENERGY. AND WHEN YOU THINK OF UNIT,
THINK OF MEASUREMENT. YOU CAN MEASURE DISTANCE
IN FEET OR METERS. SO A UNIT IS SIMPLY A
MEASUREMENT OF FOOD ENERGY. SO THAT IS ALL A CALORIE IS,
IS THE WAY WE MEASURE THE TYPE OF ENERGY WE
GET OUT THE FOOD THERE. SO WHEN YOU CONSUME FOOD YOU’RE GOING TO GET OUT ENERGY, BECAUSE FOOD HAS ENERGY AND
ENERGY DOESN’T REALLY CHANGE, ISN’T CREATED OR DESTROYED,
IT JUST CHANGES FORM. SO WE TAKE IN FOOD
AND WE GET OUT ENERGY. IF WE DON’T USE THAT ENERGY, THEN WE END UP
STORING THAT ENERGY. AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT
THAT LATER THIS SEMESTER.   SO ONE LAST
DEFINITION IS ORGANIC. AND I KNOW WHEN YOU
THINK OF ORGANIC YOU ARE THINKING OF MADE
WITHOUT PESTICIDES, GROWN WITHOUT PESTICIDES,
NO GMO’S, AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT THAT
TOWARDS THE END OF THE SEMESTER. BUT THIS DEFINITION OF ORGANIC
MEANS CONTAINING CARBON. AND REALLY CARBON IS LIFE. WHEN WE THINK ABOUT CARBON
CONTAINING MOLECULES, WE THINK ABOUT THE
MOLECULES OF LIFE. SO FOUR OF OUR SIX ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENTS ARE, ORGANIC, CARBOHYDRATES, FAT,
PROTEIN, AND VITAMINS. NOTICE I DON’T HAVE MINERALS
NOR WATER ON THIS LIST. NEITHER OF THEM CONTAIN CARBON. KEEP IN MIND THAT MINERALS
ARE JUST ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS. THEY ARE AT THEIR KIND OF
SMALLEST POINT ALREADY. YOU CAN’T BREAK THEM
DOWN INTO ANYTHING. SO THEY CAN’T CONTAIN CARBON BECAUSE THEY’RE
THEIR OWN ENTITY. AND WE KNOW THAT WATER
IS HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. NOW IF I WERE TO ASK
YOU WHICH NUTRIENTS WERE ENERGY YIELDING
AND ORGANIC ON AN EXAM, YOU WOULD SAY, CARBOHYDRATES,
FAT AND PROTEIN. WE KNOW THESE ARE
ENERGY YIELDING. WE ALSO KNOW THAT EACH
OF THESE CONTAIN CARBON, THEY’RE ALL ORGANIC. NOW WHY ISN’T
VITAMINS ON THIS LIST? WELL, VITAMIN IS ORGANIC. IT DOES CONTAIN CARBON,
BUT IT DOESN’T YIELD ENERGY. VITAMINS PARTICIPATE IN
REACTIONS THAT YIELD ENERGY, BUT THEY THEMSELVES DO
NOT BREAK DOWN TO GIVE US ENERGY AND THAT’S AN
IMPORTANT DISTINCTION.  

1 thought on “2.3 Food Choices and Health: Choosing Foods, Understanding Nutrients”

  1. Just started watching your videos. I'm an Exercise and Health science undergrad in my final year, your videos are a great resource. I watched your playlist about lipids for an exam a few weeks ago and I now plan to watch all of your videos from start to finish.Can't believe they don't have more views. Thanks so much!

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